H. G. Wells. His Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought: An Experiment in Prophecy, was first serially published in The Fortnightly Review in 1901.

Futures studies emerged as an academic discipline in the mid-1960s.
First-generation futurists included Herman Kahn, an American Cold War strategist who wrote On Thermonuclear War (1960), Thinking about the unthinkable (1962) and The Year 2000: a framework for speculation on the next thirty-three years (1967); Bertrand de Jouvenel, a French economist who founded Futuribles International in 1960; and Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-British scientist who wrote Inventing the Future (1963) and The Mature Society. A View of the Future (1972).

1975 saw the founding of the first graduate program in futures studies in the United States, the M.S. program in Futures Studies at the University of Houston–Clear Lake.

Scenario planning

Backcasting is a planning method that starts with defining a desirable future and then works backwards to identify policies and programs that will connect the future to the present.[1] The fundamentals of the method were outlined by John. B Robinson from the University of Waterloo in 1990.

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Kendte fremtidsforskere 
Alvin Toffler, Bertrand de Jouvenel, Hans Moravec m.fl.

Debat, the world's No.1 open community on scenario thinking and scenario planning where you can publish scenarios ...


Ackoff, Russell L. 1981: Redesigning the Future. Wiley. 

Ackoff, Russell L. 1981: Creating the Corporate Future : Plan or be Planned for. Wiley. (Amazon). (Wikipedia: F-law).

Ackoff, Russell L. 1981: Re-Creating the Corporation: A Design of Organizations for the 21st Century. Oxford University Press. (Amazon).

Checkland, Peter and Jim Scholes 2009: Soft Systems Methodology: a 30-year retrospection. John Wiley & Sons. (Amazon).

​De Geus, Arie P. 2002: The Living Company: Habits for Survival in a Turbulent Business Environment. (Amazon). (Biografi v/Wikipedia). (

De Geus, Arie P. 2011: The Living Company: Growth, Learning and Longevity in Business. (Amazon).

Drucker, Peter F.: The Age of Social Transformation. Atlantic Monthly.

Flood, Robert Louis 1999: Rethinking The Fifth Discipline: Learning Within the Unknowable. Routledge. (Amazon).

Kees van der Heijden 2005: Scenarios: The Art of Strategic Conversation. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd ... pdf

MacIntyre, Alasdair 2013: After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. Bloomsbury. (Amazon). 

Moore, James F. 1997: The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems. (Amazon). (Wikipedia).

Scearce, Diana and Katherine Fulton 2004: What If?  The Art of Scenario Thinking for Nonprofits. ...

Senge, Peter 1990: The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.

Wilkinson, A. and R.Kupers 2013: Living in the futures. Harvard Business Review ... pdf


ActKnowledge and The Aspen Institute

Center for Fremtidsforskning

Selskabet for Fremtidsforskning

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Johan Peter Paludan
Tidl. direktør for Instituttet for Fremtidsforskning

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Anne-Marie Dahl

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Backcasting for Dummies